Research dump van soc’s en MPU,s

Door verleemen op maandag 19 maart 2018 18:29
Categorie: -, Views: 3.251

Voor de nerds onder ons heb ik mijn notities die ik maak over processoren en andere info die de basis zijn van mijn laatste paar blogs maar eens bijelkaar gezet.

Het is info uit wel 100 verschillende forumposts en spec pagina`s. Alleen al alle atmegas en hun Specs bij elkaar vinden was een week rondzoemen, maar ja, das mijn vorm van ontspanning als ik in bed lig en t lijkt een beetje op schatgravertje spelen. Vooral als je plots een super low spec mpu vind waar je echt nog nooit van gehoord hebt en dan op YouTube filmpjes ziet dat er iemand dan toch nog een game op aan de praat heeft gekregen zoals de attiny 13 a die maar 64 bytes aan ram heeft. ( bytes, NIET Kilobytes dus]

Dat geld ook voor die ouderwetse handheld lcd games zoals de game en watch met donkey kong.
Wist je dat daar de zelfde 4 bits processor in wordt gebruikt die eigenlijk voor rekenmachines is bedoeld? En dan wordt er eigenlijk niets berekend, het zijn puur looplichen met detection als ze elkaar teglijk kruisen.

Maar goed.

Dit is dus mijn research wat ik doe voor ik aan een blog begin,

Het is soms een hele puzzel om alle Specs en type van een processor bij elkaar te vinden.
Ook zitten er verschillende commentaren en stukken interviews tussen. Zie het maar als een grabbelbak. Het kan wat wanordelijk over komen maar in principe gaat t eerst over


1. arduino chips, zoals atmel, maar ook pic en microcontroller boards als STM32
2. daarna over Chinese smartwatch chips van mediatek
3. dan over ASIC’s als GOAC en NOAC h Nes en Genesis on a chip incl de titan nes emulator
4. de processoren in de game en watch en andere lcd games van oa Nintendo,

Geen idee hoe je hier links naar delen van de pagina maakt dus ja zoek maar
4 bit
8 bit
16 bit
32 bit
ARDUINO
ATMEL
ATMEGA
ATTINY
ATT GAMES
GAME AND WATCH
GOAC
GENESIS
MEDIATEK
MTK
MPU
NES
NEC
NOAC
PIC
TITAN
SEGA
SMARTWATCH
SOC
STM8
STM32
STM DISCOVERY

En je vind wel de een of andere interresante spec of toelichting. Have fun.

O, en het zijn dus allemaal low spec cpu en GPU’s, maar dan anno nu, dus 8 bitters @ 32 mhz met 4 PWM output. Of cortex m0 cores, de goedkoopste en kleinste en zuinigste ARM core die bestaat van een kwart vierkante mm en die toch krachtig genoeg is om er een nes emulator op te draaien.

Kun je nagaan wat zon MCU van 50 cent zou kunnen presteren als je dr native op zou coden, die daar zou je een homecomputer op kunnen bouwen die sneller is dan een at pc of en c 64, puur op processorkracht een aansluitpoorten. En dat wordt dan in een thermostaat of koffiezet apparaat gebruikt, What a waste of recources, ik bedoel er zijn zelfs game computers in kleur die puur op een 8 bits atmega328 en een paar weerstandjes draaien en die hun tv en audio output genereren uit de PWM signalen die uit de pootjes van de chip komen die eigenlijk bedoeld zijn om knipperlichten en servomotoren aan te sturen, en dan bedoel ik games als pacman of Space invaders, op je tv!

Edit: ik besef net dat deze blog waarschijnlijk de grootste hoeveelheid aan keywords en typeomschrijvingen heeft die ooit op tweskers blogs heeft gestaan en waar dus misschien nog wel erg veel internationale hits van Specs zoekers zou kunnen genereren dan ik eigenlijk bij stil gestaan heb:]

1. ARDUINO

Attiny 13a 1kb flash 64b ram
ATtiny 85 8kb flash 512b ram
Atmega 8 8kb flash 1kb ram
Atmega 168 16kb flash 1 kb ram
Atmega 328 32 kb flash 2 kb ram
Atmega 328p(icopower) 32 kb flash 2 kb ram
Atmega 32u4 (USB) 32kb flash 2.5 kb ram
Atmega 1284p 128 kb flash 16 kb ram
AtXmega256a3u 8/16 bit 32 mhz 256 kb flash 16 kb sram 20 mhz

STM8S103F3P6 chip ¤0.31
STM8S103F3P6 board ¤0.51

STM32F103C8T6 chip ¤1.03
STM32F103C8T6 board ¤ 1,75

Pic24
Pic32
Pic32mx
Maximite
Duinomite
Gamebuino is een arduino hield met een GPU en vga output

Uzebox. Atmega644 64kb flash, 4kb ram, 2kb ROM.
The ATMega328P and ATMega32U4 are both in the AVR family and have 32K of flash memory (hence the 32 in the name). They differ in package and what peripherals are offered. The biggest difference is that the 32U4 has a USB Device peripheral (hence the U in the name) the 328P does no have a dedicated USB peripheral, although a bit-bang library (V-USB) does exist. If you want to use the chip for a USB keyboard, the ATMega32U4, or any of the other USB equipped devices in the AVR family is a better choice.

Edit: The AU suffix seen in the part number ATMega32P-AU is simply a package/case designation. The P is for PicoPower which is a set of features that allows for saving power including turning off peripherals that are not in

Atmel ATmega328P 8bit 32 kb flash 2kb ram 1kb ROM 16mhz (No GPU)
Atmel Samd 21 cortex m0+ 32bit 256 kb flash 32 kb ram 48 (MHz No GPU)

Atmega328 pro mini ¤ ¤1.50 186 ¤1.40 (1 kb)
5110 ¤1.7

STM8S103F3P6 chip ¤0.31
STM8S103F3P6 board ¤0.51

STM32F103C8T6 chip ¤1.03
STM32F103C8T6 board ¤ 1,75

Model: STM32F103C8T6. ¤1.73
Core: ARM 32 Cortex-M3 CPU.
Debug mode: SWD.
72MHz work frequency.
64K flash memory, 20K SRAM.
2.0-3.6V power, I/O.
Reset(POR/PDR).
4-16MHz crystal.
On-board Mini USB interface, you can give the board power supply and USB communication.
Size:5.3cm x 2.2cm.

TINY DUINO /TINY ARCADE 1 /VIDEO GAME SET ATMEGA328

Arduboy ATMEGA328

Gamebuino ATMEGA328. (Raycast)

TINYSCREEN+ /TINY ARCADE 2 ATSAM D21 M0

Gamebuino meta ATSAM D21

Pokitto NXP LPC11U68 m0+

—————————————————————————¤

MEDIATEK


Mediatek released the LinkIT ONE, based on the MT2502A wearable

——————————-


SMARTWATCH SOC (MCU) mediatek (Nucleus rtos limited Android f
DZ09 / U8 / GT08 telefoons tussen ¤7 en ¤15
Draaien games, en apps *#00000000# installeert appstore.
240x240 videos@20fps DZ09 HEEFT VERSCHILLEDE FABRIKANTEN
heeft Sim en microsdcard slot, mic en cam. Kan mee gebeld worden
Intern
Mediatek
MT6260 soc 364 MHz, ARM7EJ-S, 8MiB RAM, I2C, SPI, PWM, UART, LCD + touchscreen controller, audio codec with speaker amplifier, battery charger, USB, Bluetooth, GSM. The gray market prices it around $3/unit in single quantities (No GPU )
——————————————————————————————————
MT2502, reports itself MT6261, so either they are very similar or identical, co
(DZ09 / U8 draaien soms op (niet bij mediatek vermelde MT6261DA terwijl er wel chips met die opdruk zijn)

MT2502 arm7 260 MHz

MT2503 arm7 260 MHz ( more efficiënt


DUUR ¤

MT2601 draait Android KitKat dual cortex A7 1.2 GHz


MT6261DA mediatek U8 /DZ09

Hi, I read a lot os post about DZ09 but with MT6261 or 6260 cpu but mine brings MT6261DA.

MTK6260A 533 MHz CPU Processor::MTK6260A 533 MHz CPU
Operating System::Possible Fork Android
Display::1.56'' (3.96 cm) TFT LCD
Memory::128 MB

• device
MT6260
Edit
CPU (ISA)
fab
CPU
CPU cache
GPU
Memory technology
Wireless radio technologies
Released
ARM7EJ (ARMv5)

Up to 360 MHz

No GPU

Feature phone SoC

• ▪ Microsa (Se30, 215, 222, 225, 230 etc.)
• Also in smartwatches: U Watch U8, 230 mAh[3] and U8 U Pro3, 320 mAh.[4]


A1 MTK6260D
MT6260
Gonkai
Institutionalized common secret chip tech
MTK6260 360MHz

Nucleus rtos limited Android fork


Even if we usually don’t point out to blogs in our news channel, this post from Bunnie Wang, creator of the Novena open source laptop and renowned hacker worldwide contains not only the great description of chinese “Gongkai” culture, but also a great example of reverse engineering applied to a MT6260 to create a reference hardware design called “Fernvale”. Really must read for all hardware hackers!
the Chinese have a parallel system of traditions and ethics around sharing IP, which lead me to coin the term “gongkai”. This is deliberately not the Chinese word for “Open Source”, because that word (kaiyuan) refers to openness in a Western-style IP framework, which this not. Gongkai is more a reference to the fact that copyrighted documents, sometimes labeled “confidential” and “proprietary”, are made known to the public and shared overtly, but not necessarily according to the letter of the law. However, this copying isn’t a one-way flow of value, as it would be in the case of copied movies or music. Rather, these documents are the knowledge base needed to build a phone using the copyright owner’s chips, and as such, this sharing of documents helps to promote the sales of their chips. There is ultimately, if you will, a quid-pro-quo between the copyright holders and the copiers.

this chip is labled MT2502, but it reports itself as being a MT6261, so either they are very similar or identical, core of LinkIt


Fernvale

Mediatek released the LinkIT ONE, based on the MT2502A wearable 5x5 mm
General Features
CPU Type:
ARM7EJ-S
CPU Core Count:
Single (1)
CPU Frequency:
260MHz
SDK:
Yes
HDK:
Yes
Memory:
4MB


MT6261 is the old solution for watches,
the new one is MT2503, you can use it for watches,
and it's the same MRE MMI APP development environment as MT6261,
but it need license to get it
Part of the MediaTek MT2502 product family, the MT2503 is a highly integrated, ultra-small chip that contains dual-mode Bluetooth and integrated 2G modem. The microcontroller unit is an ARMv7 processor with integrated memory.

General Features
CPU Type:
ARM7EJ-S
CPU Core Count:
Single (1)
CPU Frequency:
260MHz
Constellations:
GPS+GLONASS, 
Galileo, 
Beidou
Connectivity
Bluetooth:
2.1 + EDR, 
3.0
Supplementary Features
Power Management:
Yes
Package
Package Size:
5.4 x 6.2 mm
Package Type:
TFBGA

Mt2601 draait Android KitKat
MT2601
Energy-efficient platform for Android Wear devices featuring ARM Cortex-A7 running at 1.2GHz, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and GPS 
Please note this product is now managed and sold by AIROHA, a MediaTek subsidiary.


MediaTek MT2601 brings dual-core performance to entry-level Android Wear devices without taking a toll on battery life. Based on the energy-efficient dual-core ARM Cortex-A7 processor, MT2601 features a cost-optimized system level design that simplifies product development, reduces manufacturing costs and speeds up the time to market. MT2601 features Wi-Fi and Bluetooth connectivity options, as well as GPS. Its multimedia features include support for a 960 x 540 display with MediaTek MiraVision™  image enhancement, 720p HD video and a 5-megapixel camera.

General Features
CPU Type:
ARM Cortex-A7
CPU Core Count:
Dual (2)
CPU Frequency:
1.2GHz
Constellations:
GPS+GLONASS, 
Galileo, 
Beidou
Multi GNSS:
QZSS
Connectivity
Mobile Data:
CDMA2000, 
EDGE, 
HSPA +
Bluetooth:
2.1 + EDR, 
4.1 (Low Energy)
Wi Fi Features
IEEE 802.11 Spec:
a/b/g/n/ac
Wi-Fi Frequency:
2.4GHz, 
5GHz
Additional Features
Camera ISP:
5MP
Recording Max Resolution:
1280 x 720
Display Max Resolution:
960 x 540
Video Encoding:
H.264
Video Decoding:
H.264
Packaging
Package Size:
12 x 12 x 1.4 mm


mt7681 home
MT7681

Processor core
Andes N9
Clock
80MHz
Package
5mm x 5mm QFN40L
Wi-Fi Station Mode
802.11b/g/n
Wi-Fi Access Point Mode
802.11b/g
RAM
64KB
Operation Voltage
3.3V
Peripherals
SPI, UART, PWM, GPIO


Thus empowered by our fair use rights, we decided to embark on a journey to reverse engineer the Mediatek MT6260. It’s a 364 MHz, ARM7EJ-S, backed by 8MiB of RAM and dozens of peripherals, from the routine I2C, SPI, PWM and UART to tantalizing extras like an LCD + touchscreen controller, audio codec with speaker amplifier, battery charger, USB, Bluetooth, and of course, GSM. The gray market prices it around $3/unit in single quantities. You do have to read or speak Chinese to get it, annd supply has been a bit spotty lately due to high Q4 demand, but we’re hoping the market will

I want to be able to use a 364 MHz 32-bit microcontroller with megabytes of integrated RAM and dozens of peripherals costing $3 in single quantities, instead of a 16 MHz 8-bit microcontroller with a few kilobytes of RAM and a smattering of peripherals costing $6 in single quantities

MT5931
SDIO 2.0
bgn
1x1:1
2013-07-15
802.11n (2.4GHz) with 150Mbps data rate
targeted towards mobile applications
(MT2502 + MT3332 + MT5931)
0 devices
1 devices
PBrief
Android phones 2mp MTK6752 Dual Core 1.2GHz
S8 ¤40
Qw9 ¤40
Dm98 320x240 breedbeeld

Mtk6575 1ghz
An1 ¤60

Mt6577


2 GOAC

Genesis on a chip GOAC

TecToy-580G
Runs virtua racer

TCT-6705
No virtua racer

TCT-6801
No virtua racer

SM801-A1
( Most complete)

SEGA 315-6123 ASIC

The GOACs in today's Geniclones already have the 68000 and Z80 in them, but some GOACs are so cheaply made, they omit signals (TCT-6801) or have functionality that doesn't even work even though it normally would work (Master System compatibility on the TCT-6705 GOAC - pin B30 is connected to the GOAC, but Master System games refuse to work regllardless of that). They seem to be based off TecToy's 580G GOAC, which means they all have a 68000, Z80, YM3438 (my big problem with GOACs as the Genesis originally came with the YM2612 and NOT the YM3438) and Sega's VDP (slightly different as the vertical overscan area and some solid color screens show up black).

nds entirely on the GOAC. If there's a TCT-6801 ( No Virtua racing )like on the MegaDrive X shown in the video, the best you can do is S-Video. However, some of these also have the SM801-A1, which is the most complete clone GOAC, RGB included. I found a mod to get RGB off the SM801-A1 on a Russian forum, but I'll have to find the link to that mod again. I remember it involving 3 transistors and some resistors.

Since its just a couple of screws I opened up the MD X - this particular one is a TCT-6801 so no RGB options unfortunately

Since i am a huge fan of your hardware mods / clone console test i spent this evening checking the stuff you asked about.


TCT-6801 DW-16T-6801-01FIY 2009-05-05 Rev 1.0

I dont know if it output PAL video since my Tvs supports NTSC / PAL and my Tvs that doesn't do that are RF only.

The overclock in my opinion doesn't seems to do nothing. (Either my switch is bad or i am stupid)

Virtua Racing doesn't work. I tried the 50 / 60 Hz switch and the "PAL" / "NTSC" switch and i only got a black screen.

Also it will work with the Megadrive II / Genesis II composite cable but the stereo sound is dual mono.

Ace you should really get one and work your magic on it ;)
Press Release


Digital Media Cartridge Announces New 32-Bit Technology Chip for Low-Cost All-In-One TV Game Market

TAIPEI, Taiwan, May 13, 2005 -- Digital Media Cartridge, Ltd. (BVI) announced today the sampling of its new all-in-one 32-bit technology game and multimedia chip. The new chip, Titan(TM) 1.0, is a high-performance dual 32-bit RISC processor system-on-chip (SoC) optimized for low-cost integrated handhelds for portable multimedia players and all-in-one TV game pads. The chip incorporates a TV controller and encoder and a stereo audio DAC output to allow TV game products to connect directly to TV sets via audio/video cable.

DMC will supply the chip to its several contracted customers for their making in mainland China integrated all-in-one game-pads for worldwide markets this Christmas. Each game pad will contain the DMC Titan(TM) 1.0 32-bit technology chip and selected Sega Genesis(R) game titles licensed from AtGames Holdings, Ltd. (http://www.atgames.net) for TV and/or DVD players. Due to the coding efficiency of the new 32-bit technology, each all-in-one TV game product can be manufactured at up to 50% code efficiency and 30% manufacturing cost reduction, to support the products' target price of $11.95 - $19.95 this year, incorporating up to 10 Sega Genesis titles. Multiple game pads are being planned by customers for shipment for this Christmas.

Dr. Ping-Kang Hsiung, CEO of AtGames Holdings, Ltd. (Bermuda), says, "We welcome the introduction of the DMC chip which thanks to its new technology will support our licensees to ship TV game products containing licensed Sega Genesis titles for this Christmas with aggressively priced sub-$20 target. We believe this chip will create a new product category of licensed Sega Genesis games that will benefit consumers with its new features and markedly lower pricing."

About Digital Media Cartridge

Digital Media Cartridge, Ltd. was founded in 2003 as a British Virgin Islands company. DMC maintains IC chip design teams in mainland China and Taiwan. The company develops video compression and interactive entertainment products.

About AtGames

AtGames(R) Holdings, Ltd. develops innovative interactive entertainment products for worldwide distribution. Founded in 2001 by veterans in digital media and information technology industries, AtGames(R) has distribution channels in the United States, Japan, Greater China, and the rest of Asia as well as in Latin America. AtGames(R) maintains product development facilities at various locations. AtGames(R) Holdings, Ltd.'s website is http://www.atgames.net.

Contact:

Paulina Lin
Digital Media Cartridge, Ltd.
1-310-804-4918
marketing@digitalmediacartridge.com

NOTE: The company names and product names are the registered trademark of each respective company. Sega Genesis(R) is a registered trademark of Sega(R) Corporation.

Consultant

Digital Media Cartridge

(Privately Held; 1-10 employees; Computer Software industry)
May 2005 ⤔ August 2005 (4 months)
Analyzed 68000 interpreter running on an ARM implementation and recommended several strategies for improving performance. Fixed sound bugs in an OPN 4-op FM synthesis emulator. Analyzed graphics rendering routines for optimization opportunities. Designed a 2D hardware blitter and wrote the register specifications.


• Edit

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Titan (microprocessor)
Titan was supposed to be a family of 32-bit Power Architecture-based microprocessor cores designed by Applied Micro Circuits Corporation (AMCC), but was scrapped in 2010 according to reports.[1] Applied Micro chose to continue development of the PowerPC 400core instead, on a 40 nm fabrication process.
It was designed to be the foundation of embedded processors and system-on-a-chip (SoC) solutions. While being high performance, reaching speeds up to 2 GHz, it would remain extremely power efficient, drawing just 2.5 W per core. Where there usually is a trade-off between performance and power, AMCC used the Fast14 technology from Intrinsity to build an extremely efficient microprocessor design leveraging high performance combined with low power and comparably cheap bulk 90 nm CMOS manufacturing. By using NMOStransistors and no latches, the design results in a chip with fewer transistors than traditional design, thus reducing cost. The design allows for dual core SoC implementations consuming less than 15 W. There were plans for single, dual and quad-core versions.
The Titan had a new superscalar, out of order 8-9 stage core with a novel three-stage CPU cache design. Small 4/4 KiB instruction and data caches at "level 0" sit before the traditional 32/32 KiB L1 caches up to 1 MB L2 cache that will be shared between all cores (supporting up to four). The Titan was compliant with the Power ISA v.2.04.


Contents


Implementations
Edit
• APM 83290 – The first implementations of the Titan core design, codenamed Gemeni.[2] Two 1.5 GHz cores with FPU, 512 kB shared L2 cache, DDR2 controller, security engine, multi-channel DMA and I/O engine for gigabit Ethernet, PCIe, USB, RapidIO and SATA. It began sampling in October 2009 [1]. The processor is aimed at telecom and control plane applications. It is built using TSMC's 90 nm bulk CMOS fabrication to reduce cost.[2]

See also
Edit
• AMCC
• Power Architecture

External links
Edit
• AMCC's pressrelease
• AMCC Next Generation Power Architecture Processor - Titan – Power.org
• AMCC drives to high end of embedded PowerPC market – EETimes
• Intrinsity Nets 2 GHz, 4000 DMIPS PowerPC FastCore - Market Wire

References
Edit
0. ^ "AMCC takes another shot at multicore". EETimes. 2010-09-27. Retrieved 2011-07-14.
0. ^ "AMCC, TSMC put new MPU spin on IBM technology". EETimes. 2009-09-25. Retrieved 2011-07-14.

Cypress FCR4 Family of 32-bit ARM® Cortex®-R4 Microcontrollers
• Overview
• Tools & Software
• Design Support
Cypress’s FCR4 Cluster family of devices has been especially designed to offer an innovative, scalable solution for hybrid clusters, which combine traditional meters and graphical displays. With their embedded Flash, the FCR4 MCUs and SoCs can serve as single-chip solutions or operate as companion chips for other devices to build high performance systems for virtual / free programmable clusters.
FCR4 devices offer a powerful architecture based on the ARM® Cortex®-R4 core and Cypress’s 2D graphics engine. They meet today’s requirements for automotive quality, performance and low-power consumption.

Performance
The ARM® Cortex®-R4 core operates at 1.6DMIPS/MHz and features 8KB I-cache and 8KB D-cache. The units include up to 2MB embedded Flash and 64KB E2Flash, with Error Correction Code (ECC). The FCR4 family offers a performance of 205 DMIPS.
2D Graphics Capability
One of the key features of the FCR4 family, the “Iris” graphics display controller is a modular system of building blocks that can be combined to develop the optimal scalable solution for customer requirements. The TCON display controller can support four display layers of overlay and video modes up to 40MHz pixel clock. “Iris,” which includes up to 1MB embedded VRAM, also features an APIX® 1.0 transmitter, a signature unit for safety, a command sequencer and pixel engine.
Cluster and Connectivity Features
The devices feature up to six stepper motor controllers (SMCs) and Zero Point Detection (ZPD) a real-time clock / auto calibration, sound generator, and an I2S interface. The MCUs include support for Controller Area Network (CAN), Local Interconnect Network (LIN), SPI, I2C, and HS-SPI (memory mapped access).
Safety and Security
The low-power devices, which are developed to fulfill the highest automotive quality standards, include today’s required safety and security features. These features include Secure Hardware Extension (SHE), MPU, PPU, TPU, CRC, a window watchdog and ECC for all on-chip memories. Security is enhanced with Flash, debugging and test security features.
Development and Software
Cypress and its partners offer the required support for these MCUs. The series supports the latest AUTOSAR specifications including EEPROM emulation and an APIX remote handler driver. Other tools include a developer suite, and various evaluation boards.
FCR4-Cluster Family
The FCR4-Cluster family is dedicated to automotive instrument cluster applications. The first devices in this family is “Atlas” (MB9DF126) followed by “Atlas-L” (MB9DF125) and “Titan” (MB9EF226). “Atlas,” a single-chip solution for automotive-instrument clusters, can support up to six gauges and features an APIX 1.0 interface. “Atlas-L” features the Secure Hardware Extension (SHE) capability, and can be used as a stand-alone device driving up to six stepper motor controllers (SMCs) or in combination with other devices to support more complex clusters. “Titan” includes Cypress’s 2D-graphics engine “Iris,” SHE and MediaLB (for MOST.) The latest device in the family, “Titan” is an ideal solution for automotive instruments clusters with high safety and security requirements.
SOLUTIONS
• Automotive
• Industrial
• Consumer

PRODUCTS
• Wireless
• Microcontrollers (MCUs)
• Memory
• Universal Serial Bus (USB)
• Power Management
• Touch Sensing
• Clocks & Buffers

DESIGN SUPPORT
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• Product Roadmaps

ABOUT US
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CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS
Cypress Semiconductor Corp.
198 Champion Court
San Jose, CA 95134 USA
Tel: +1-408-943-2600
CUSTOMER SERVICE SUPPORT
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Hours:
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Create a MyCase


3. GAME AND WATCH

Game & watch


16
down vote
I was involved with hardware remakes / clones of a few machines and we did reverse engineer one G&W game; I think it was Green House, if I remember well.
The games are build around a custom ASIC and the rest of the circuitry is essentially support for it.
As a side note, if you've ever opened a G&W game double screen game, you'll have noticed that the main chip is sitting 45° from the main board and this was done because at the time the boards were soldered through a wave soldering machine and it allows all the pins to be properly soldered without bridges between them.
Let me tell you how they work but be prepared that it will totally kill the magic:
The whole game is essentially a polynomial generator and a few shift registers.
The polynomial unit will generate the same bit stream every single time it is started. Its output is fed to a de-multiplexer and each output feeds a shift register. Each bit in these registers is tied to an element in the LCD.
All motion done by the player is also mapped in a shift register and then a simple hardwired AND determines collisions. Possible actions in a given state are encoded in a matrix and the logic can swap bits at specific positions.
The game gets faster and faster by just changing the clock (which is essentially gated by another shift register).
Now with this information in mind, play the games again and you'll be able to see the logic at work where the player is essentially always on a long bit string and that when the objects become faster, so does the player input, etc.
We didn't reverse other games, but I see no reason why they'd have a different hardware since only one small matrix on top of that system can make a different game; Zelda is different, but it came years after the rest and I have no clue how it is made.
There is a bit more logic to it, but that's essentially it; some of the logic is to drive the screen; I don't remember the reason but I was explained that LCD screens from that era needed the segments to be toggled on / off to prevent some damage, apparently it's the same in watches; if anyone worked with that technology, I'd be happy to understand the details.
The hardware is tiny and could be re-implemented in a FPGA in an afternoon, but it was really clever since there is no CPU involved; It would be trivial to recreate the ASIC in software as well with very little code where each game is a different table.


Finally, why simulating instead of emulating?

Because of the great lack of informations about the wide range of 4-bit microprocessors used as "engine" in handheld video-games.

The Game & Watch is more akin to a light switchboard than to a computer.


Hello, maybe I can help. I'm the owner of MADrigal's Simulators.

The problem is that the CPU used in Niintendo G&W is still unknown. Some people suspect it's a TI TMS1000 or a Sharp MC-501.

They are normal 4-bit MCU's with opcodes, RAM and ROM.

The problem is that the ROM is embedded in the MCU, so you should "decap" them and "extract" the data visually, in a similar manner to what the MAME team does to decode rare MCU's (like Bubble Bobble, for example).

It's feasible but expensive.

To date, no one has ever emulated any of those MCU's.

Thanks for reading. 


Posted: Tue Mar 10, 2015 3:14 pm    Post subject:


Big update since last time! I'm up to over 20 games dumped and vectored and traced out now!

I have figured out how to dump the MM78 CPUs that were in the Mattel Football game, and have dumped the COP411 in the Entex Turtles game. This brings the total CPU dumpability list up to:

HD38800A
HD38800B hitachi ?
HD38750A
HD38820A
D552C
D553C NEC (verified)
D650C
MM78 (Rockwell)
COP411 national semiconductor 1992


Epoch Dracula (D553C)
Tomy Alien Chase (D553C)
Tomy Tennis (D553C)

All three games use the same CPU, the NEC D553 (D552 on Tennis

In September of 1971, TI finished the design for their TMS0100 single-chip calculators. Designs where done by the Texas Instruments engineers Gary Boone and Michael Cochran. Based on their design of the TMX1795, Gary patented the invention for a single-chip processing machine on Aug 31, 1971. On Sep 4 1973, he was awarded U.S. Patent 3,757,306. Building on top of their experiences with the TMS0100 and Boone's 8-bit microprocessor prototype they went on to design the 4-bit TMS1000 microcontroller series. Boone was later awarded U.S. Patent 4,074,351 for the modern microcontroller.
After being slightly refined, the chip was released to general market in 1974. A few dozen different variations were created with various ROM and RAM sizes. Due to its cheap price, the TMS1000 family enjoyed a tremendous success in consumer electronics.
Applications[edit]
The TMS1000 was cheap enough to be used in everything from TI's own calculators to microwave ovens, washers, jukeboxes, video games, toys, games, and thousands of other electronic products. Over one hundred million processors were sold.

Calculators
TEAL PHOTON
Distinctive features: The TEAL PHOTON appears to have been the first solar cell powered calculator.
Technical details:
Display is 8 digits, LCD with yellow filter.
There are two versions, with version 2 having the extra "AC" key, but both are 4-function, with %, memory, and square root keys.
Power supply is solar cell, only.
Version 1 integrated circuit is a Toshiba T3606, here date coded late 1977.
Version 2 integrated circuit is an NEC D1831G, here date coded late 1979.


4bits MCU Epson S1C60N05

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